the Carmel

School Notebooks n° 13

DatesActivitiesDevelopmentsH. Famous
CS13-02-03 5e century 420428448451458  PharamondClodion the hairyMérovéeWar against AttilaSt GenevièveChildericEscape of the king  Son of Clodion was a tribal leader. The invasions of Attila king of the Huns took place *took place under his reign *reign. Merovée marched against Attila and won on him the battle of champs Catalauniques.Attila massacred all the cities that were on his way. Paris owed * owed its salvation only by the prayers of a shepherdess of Nanterre. The son and successor of Mérovée began with serious faults which caused him to be driven out of his estates. He retired to the Franks * French of Thuringia to return when *when his subjects were calmed down.  PharamondClodionMérovéeSt GenevièveChildericViomade 
CS13-04-05  481486495507Piece of ViomadeClovisBattle of SoissonsThe VaseBattle of TolbiacBaptism of ClovisBt by VouilleChilderic had left in France *France a devoted friend who was to warn him when *the subjects were calmed down by means of a piece of gold broken in two. Childeric returned and shared power with Egidius. By dying the king left Clovis who was the real founder of the French monarchy. the booty there was a vase that Clovis claimed for St Remi, a soldier who resisted Clovis some time later examined his weapons and split his head. The Germans having crossed the Rhine near Cologne Clovis went to meet them and fought near Tolbiac at the time of losing the victory he exclaimed that he would become a Christian if he indeed won it, he won it and kept his promise. Clovis was instructed by a priest from Toul St Vaast St Remi, bishop of Reims, baptized him and three thousand warriors The Visigoths occupied the most beautiful part of Gaul ClovisEgidiusClovis
CS13-06-07 511500552504Last actions of ClovisParis capital of the KingdomSharing of the Kingdom of ClovisChildbert *Childberd king of ParisMassacre of the children of Clodomir. Clotilde's response to the envoys of Clotaire and Childebert *Childeberdresolved to defeat them *conquer and marched towards Poitiers where Alaric II was. the battle took place near Vouillé and was won by Clovis. Towards the last years of his life Clovis made the mistake of letting himself go to pride he committed a large number of murders and died on Nov. 27 at the age of 45 years old. It takes its name from the Tribe of Parisii who came to settle in this city formerly called Lutèce. Thierry had Metz. Clodomir Orléans, Childebert * Childeberd Paris and Clotaire Soissons this is how France was divided between the children of Clovis. Childebert * Childeberd and Clotaire wanted to avenge the death of their brother Clodomir and they laid siege to Autun and reduced Burgundy. They then had the idea of ​​having the possessions of their brother who had three children. I would rather see them dead than shorn and they were killed immediately. The third fled and retired to a monastery.
CS13-08-09
 
575568628-638638-656Frédégonde *Fredegonde and BrunehautDagobert and St EloiThe mayors of PalaisKings Lazy *LazyGrimoaldSigebert married Brunehaut, daughter of Athanagilde king of the Visigoths of Spain. Chilpéric first married *dabord Golswinthe his sister but then he married Frédégonde after having strangled his first wife. Brunehaut accused her of the death of her sister and she waged war against her, but her son the king of Neustria had her tied to the tail of an untamed horse which caused her death. Dagobert had the misfortune to give his subjects great scandals but he then repented and followed the advice of St Eloi who was at his court. kings had this simply nominal title they [only] appeared once a year to report to them on the actions of the mayors of the *de palais.succeeded his father Pépin *Pepin de Landen to be mayor of the *de Palais * Tried to impersonate his own son as King Sigebert but he was arrested along with his son and Clovis II put them to death.Frédégonde *FrédegondeBrunehautChilpéricSigebert *SigeberdDagobertSt EloiGrimoaldPépin *Pepinde Landen
CS13-10-11
 
715-741712732752752-768Charles MartelBattle of PoitiersFall of the 1RaceCrowned Pepin *crowned kingPhysical Strengthof Pepinwas mayor of Palais under Dagobert III he defeated the Arabs at Xérès *Xérèx. The Saracens came to ravage France * France he defeated them between Tours and Poitiers he crushed the infidels as with a hammer that's where his name of hammer came from, he then continued his work and took away their strongholds from the Arabs, he died at Kiersi-sur-Oise in the Oise near Compiègne. Pépin the Short mayor of the palace was loved by all for his justice he consulted Pope Zacharie and according to his decision he sent Childéric III to a monastery and mounted him even on the throne. In the year 752 Pépin went to the aid of Pope Etienne III whom Astolphe king of the Lombards threatened then he went to be crowned by him as well as his two sons Charles and Carloman, on July 28, 754. Pépin despite his small size was of an extraordinary force one day one of the Lords made fun of him by saying that this small king could not defend France, Pépin having known it made bring a furious bull and he cut his head in two, then all his subjects believed in his power.
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759–768771War against the LombardsWar against the Saxons of AquitaineCharlemagnePepin went to Italy and won a victory against Astolphe king of the Lombards and he pledged not to harm the property of the Pope again but as soon as Pepin was away he became rebellious again, so Pepin crossed the Alps with the speed of lightning , he took away from him the duchy of Rome, the pentapolis and the exarchate *extarchat of Ravenna then he donated them to the Holy See. He passed from there to Aquitaine where *or the Duke of Vaïfre of Merovingian origin was at the head of those who regretted the Merovingians. Pépin devastated several cities and he finally remained master of victory. He died some time later. Pépin left two sons Charles and Carloman. Charles the eldest *eldest had Austrasia and Neustria, Aquitaine belonged to the two brothers about this country a revolt broke out but between the two brothers, but they reconciled shortly after but Carloman died and he left Charles sole master of the empire in 771. Later, after the death of Charles, he was reunited with Carloman in the same tomb in memory of their touching union
CS13-14-15 War against the LombardsWar against the AvarsRoland in Roncesvalles (Navarre)Pope Adrian 1e was again threatened under Charlemagne by a Lombard king, Didier. Charlemagne hesitated at first because he had married Didier's daughter, but as to contract this Alliance he had been obliged to repudiate his first wife, he soon made his choice and sent his daughter back to Didier. Charlemagne marched on Pavia and won brilliant successes, but he interrupted his victory on the occasion of Holy Week which he went to spend in Rome, then he seized Pavia and the iron crown of the Lombard kings passed into the hands of Charlemagne.Charlemagne seized the kingdom of the Avars and returned to France all that they had taken from the wealth of the whole universe. He covered the kingdom with bishoprics and cities and thereby made it Catholic. The famous nephew of Charlemagne perished at Roncesvalles on his return from an expedition to Italy *IItalie [sic]. He found himself in a precipice and dying because of his wounds but he did not want to leave his Durandal sword to the infidels and he tried to break it on the rocks but he could not. Poets and troubadours have been pleased to sing of his exploits.Adrien 1 Pape Didie
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778800807War against the ArabsCharlemagne EmperorAppearances of the NormansThe Arabs were masters of Spain but they could not live there in peace. Abdérame came to implore the help of Charlemagne, the latter crossed the Pyrenees *Pyrennées and gave his conquest the name of the march of Spain where he won a brilliant victory. from the altar of St Peter. The sovereign pontiff went to him and placed on his head a crown *crown of Emperor saying to him with all the people. Life and victory to Charles great and peaceful crowned emperor *Crowned by the will of God. Thus was raised the empire of Occident after this beautiful festival the Emperor Charlemagne received the honors of a great number of monarchs who came to him to congratulate it. The Normans were men of Denmark they traveled on sea in boats that 'they called sailing horses they chose a leader only when they were on the sea. They made an appearance in 800 on the shores of the Mediterranean to ravage. Charlemagne tried to repel them but he was saddened by thinking that after his death the barbarians would return.AbderameCharlemagneRolandHaroun al-Raschid *Harouin al-Rasch
CS13-18-19  814814The NormansDeath of CharlemagneLouis le DébonnaireA flotilla *Norman flotilla composed of seven hundred *hundred boats went up the Seine in November 885 when they arrived in front of Paris they found the river barred in front of two bridges. They began the siege which lasted a year the Parisians commanded by their bishop Gozlin *Gosselin and by their count Eudes son of Robert le fort. 'interval. Charlemagne therefore prepared to die and he expiated by great penances the practices of his private life which had not always been without reproach his end was softened by the practices of religion and he died holy in the month of January 814.Charlemagne when he died he left the throne to his son Louis le Débonnaire but unfortunately he only inherited the throne because despite his thirty-six years he was weak and he did not know how to keep the rebellious people in obedience. He separated his estates between his sons to maintain order and peace unfortunately instead of reconciling the people that *that excited Bernard his nephew to revolt.
CS13-20-21817830834Cruelty of HermangardeRevolt of the sons of LouisSecond revolt *revoltDeath of Louis le Débonnaire *DebonnaireBernard fell into the hands of Louis the good-natured who spared him but his cruel wife Hermangarde advised him to gouge out his eyes, he died of this torture. a son Charles the bald, at his birth Louis wanted to renew the division, but his other sons revolted and seized the power of their father. Later Louis was restored to his state. Louis having again tried to make Charles an appanage, Lothair corrupted his Father's troops and seized him then he degraded him in front of all the people by making him read the story of crimes he had never committed then he was locked up in a monastery but his two other sons Louis and Pépin came to his rescue and restored [him] restored to the throne. Louis experienced great sorrow in his last years his son Louis the German revolted and caused his old father to die of grief his only food during the 48 days preceding his death was holy communion
CS13-22-23  814843Battle of FornaiTreaty of VerdunLouis le Bonnaire's sons did not get along after their father's death. Lothair wanted the title of emperor, he joined forces with Pepin II, son of the king of Aquitaine, against Charles and Louis. he was defeated and fled. Charles and Louis swore before their army to lend each other mutual aid [to] fight Lothair. Lothair, seeing that he had no means of resistance, signed the peace and together they determined their possessions. Louis had all of Germany, from the banks of the Rhine to those of the Elbe; Charles had Gaul; Lothair had, with the title of emperor, Italy and all the border to the east of Gaul, limited by the Meuse, the Rhine, the Saône, the Rhône and the Alps. that is to say Belgium, Lotharingia *Lotaringie or Lorraine the county of Burgundy *Bourgonne and Provence. In vain many kings will try to bring France within its limits *limes given to it by Clovis only Alsace and Lorraine will return to our possessions
CS13-24-25Invasion of the NormansCharles the Bald EmperorTreaty of Kiersy *Kersy sur OiseCharles the bald was a weak prince. The Normans who had already appeared under Charlemagne and Louis the Good-natured returned with greater force during the reign of Charles the Bald. These barbarians inhabited the barren plains of Sweden, Norway *Norway and Denmark *Dannemarck. They spent their life plundering and had a leader only on the sea. Charles the Bald never knew how to keep them away except by giving them heaps of gold. *receive the imperial crown from the hands of the Sovereign Pontiff John VIIIDuring *While Charles the bald was emperor the Normans plundered *plundered Rouen. Charles the Bald convened a Diet at Kiersy sur Oise, and signed a capitulary which consecrated the inheritance of fiefs and royal charges on these same fiefs.
CS13-26-27 877879884885Louis II the StuttererLouis III and CarlomanCharles le GrosSiege of ParisLudwig II the stutterer was a weak prince who did much to weaken his power. His sons acted like him: on his death, Boson, brother of the wife of Emperor Louis II, had himself named sovereign of Burgundy *Bourgonne. Louis III and Carloman could not prevent it these two princes after having loved each other tenderly descended into the tomb two years apart. They were buried in the same tomb. The lords elected *elected Charles the fat who was unworthy to wear the crown *crown because of his weakness. He did not know how to repel the Normans. Eudes and Bishop Gozlin *Gozelin courageously defended the city of Paris finally Charles le gros appeared, but the indignation of the Parisians was great when they learned that Charles was buying the retreat of this enemy at a price of gold that they had half defeated! After this cowardly *cowardly intervention he retired to Germany but a diet in Tribur stripped him of his crowns *crowns. France took Eudes as king and the other countries chose particular sovereigns.BosonEudesGozlin *Gozelin Bishop
CS13-28-29888896898923Formation of the kingdom of Burgundy *Burgundy transjuraneEstablishment of the NormansRevolt against Charles the SimpleDeath of Charles III the SimpleEudes could not maintain himself on the throne of France without difficulty; he had many enemies who wanted to dispute the throne with him. Rodolphe son of the Count of Auxerre formed the kingdom of Burgundy *bourgonne transjurane. Eudes learned that Charles III had just been crowned. He was the third son of Louis the stutterer. Eudes waged war on him but it was not very lethal the two rivals shared France between them but Eudes having died Charles III the simple remained the only king. Charles III the simple sorry to see the Normans ravaging his territory *territory signed with the leader of the Normans a treaty which gave them Neustria. Rollo governed his province with great wisdom. The reign of Charles the Simple had been quite peaceful but because of the weakness of his character * character one of his favorites deposed him * deposed and elected * elected king Robert duke of France. A battle took place in Soissons. Robert was killed, but Hugh his son avenged his death, and the unfortunate Charles the Simple gave himself up to the Count of Vermandois, Héribert or Herbert, who held him prisoner in the tower of Péronne; the unfortunate captive died there in 929.RollonEudes
CS13-30-31
   
923936954986RaoulLouis IV d'OutremerLothaire




Louis V the Lazy
The new Duke of France was Hugues, the way to the throne was open to him but he preferred to raise his brother-in-law Raoul there, the latter was not recognized as king by the great vassals who had pretensions. The end of his reign was troubled by the Hungarians, who invaded eastern France. However Raoul faced all his enemies, he died in 936. Louis IV from overseas was recalled with his widowed mother of Charles the Simple and he was elected king. His reign was full of tribulations he died at the age of thirty four, in 936 Lothair would have had enough energy to make a good king but feudalism had taken away all his rights, he only had the city of Laon left, his brother Charles accepted as a stronghold the Duchy of Lower Lorraine from the hands of the Emperor of Germany all France rose up against him, the army surprised Otho at table in Aix-la-Chapelle. He ravaged the country, and returned to his states [in] 978. This war had no real results. doubt what earned him the nickname of lazy. The second race had reigned 235 years and had given fourteen kings to France.Hugh the greatRaoulHugues capetLouis IV overseasOgineLothaireLouis V the idlerCharles
CS13-32-33 987988Hugues CapetAttempt by Charles of LorraineWar of Aquitaine                                                 III° Race: Capetians (36 Kings, 987-1830) Divided into three branches: 1e Direct Capetians.....987-1328. 2e Valois..................1328-1589. 3e Bourbons..............1589-1830. ___________________________________ The great grandson of Robert the strong was crowned king on July 3, 987. There was still Charles of Lorraine who was the last Carlovingian prince but the lords did not want him as king. However Charles of Lorraine still had some supporters they tried to reclaim his rights, but Charles was defeated and died soon after.
Hugues capet worked to strengthen his authority, he remained united to the church and attached everyone by his kindness. Aquitaine, which had [opposed] the accession of Pepin the Brief, also opposed that of Hugues Capet, but the latter defeated the leader of the revolt, but the Duke's vassals tried the revolt. Hugues *Huges capet conquered them. He died in 996. Paris again became the capital of the kingdom.
Hugues CapetGuillaume proud-to-armsAdalbertCharles de Lorraine
CS13-34-35 9961031Robert the PiousBurgundy *Bour-gonne royal estateThe year 1000Death of RobertThis prince was twenty-five years old when he ascended the throne he was wise and educated but having contracted an alliance with Berthe de Bourgogne *Burgundy his relative he was excommunicated because he refused to submit, but some time later he returned from his mistake, and married Constance of Aquitaine, princess who brought to the court of France the luxury and vanity of the courts of the south. Robert took up arms and went to conquer Burgundy * Burgundy which he united to the crown, he gave the government to Henry his second son. The beginning of the reign of Robert was saddened by the year 1000 that everyone believed to be the end of the world everyone was preparing for the last judgment, but the year having passed everyone resumed his work with ardor. Robert was a good king he was charitable and pious. He crowned Henri who was to be king because of the death of his brother and he died at Melun. This king was regretted by all his subjects. He had been a second Louis le bonnaire without having the weaknesses. Several kings among others St Henry Emperor of Germany sought his alliance.Robert the Pious Henry 1e
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   755772772800807                                   II rd Race Carlovingians                                           Pepin the Short. 752 Foundation of the domain *temporal domain of the Popes. Victories won in Italy against Astolfo king of the Lombards. Charlemagne 774He submits the SaxonsConquest of Lombardy.Charlemagne emperor.First appearances of the Normans. Louis le Bonnaire 814.................................. Charles Le Chauve 840Invasion * evasion of the Normans
936     Louis II Le Begue. 877................................. Louis III and Carloman 879.... ....................... Charles the Fat 884 See of Paris Eudes and Bishop Gozlin *Gozelin city defenders. Eudes 888........................................... Charles III Le simple 898Establishment of the Normans in Neustria. Charles III died in the tower of Péronne. Raoul 929................................ Louis IV of Outremer – 954 Lothair – 986 Louis V the Lazy.
  1099                                   IIIrd Race Capetians                     1° Direct Capetians..................987-1328 2° Valois..................... ...........1328-1589 3rd Bourbons...........................1589-1830. Hugues Capet 987. Direct Capetians............................................. ......... Robert the Pious 996. He is excommunicated because of relationship in his marriage. Henry I 1031 Truce of God. Philippe I 1060. First Crusade preached by Peter the Hermit. Capture of Jerusalem by Godefroi de Bouillon. Louis VI Le Gros 1108 Establishment of communes. Suger Abbot of St Denis. Louis VII The Younger 1137.Second Crusade. lost. Philippe Auguste 1180.Third crusade lost. Philippe is at war with Richard the lionheart, king of England and with Jean sans Terre.Fourth crusade won *won. Louis VIII Le Lion 1220.He marries Blanche de Castille mother of St Louis. Saint Louis 1226Fifth Crusade: - Sixth Crusade. St Louis died there. He had married Marguerite of Provence. Philip III the Bold. 1270. Sicilian Vespers, a plot led by Jean de 
        1302 .1336 1356

Proada against Charles of Anjou who reigned in Naples.

     Philip IV Le Bel. 1285

Conflicts *Philip's conflict with the Pope.

Abolition of the Templars under Pope Clement V

First convocation of the States-General.

     Louis X the Hutin 1314.

     Jean 1e Posthumous 1316

     Philip V The Long 1316

First application of the Salic law.

     Charles IV the Fair 1322.

   Second Branch: Valois.

     Philip VI of Valois 1328.

Victory of Cassel against the Flemings

Hundred Years War. First period under Philip VI.

Battle of L'Ecluse defeat of the French army on the coasts of Holland against the Flemish who had the English as allies. – Defeat of Crécy. – Siege of Calais, dedication of Eustache de St Pierre, Philippine de Hainaut obtains from Edward III the pardon of the 6 Calaisians.

     John II The Good 1350

Fight of the Thirty between Bretons and English.

Beaumanoir was wounded there! – Battle of Poitiers against the English; defeat at Maupertuis. - Jackie.

     1364. Charles V The Wise.

Du Guesclin liberates France from the Great Companies.

He is taken prisoner in Navarette (Burgos) He sets his ransom at 1.000.000 pounds.

     1380 Charles VI The Beloved.

The jerseys.- War of Flanders, Victory of Rosebecque, Olivier de Clisson who commanded madeCS13-44-45  1429 

a horrible massacre in Courtray. – Charles VI marries Isabeau of Bavaria. – Charles the Bad is accidentally burned in a blanket. – Pierre de Craon murders *murders the Constable Olivier de Clisson. – Insanity of the king. – The great schism *chism of the West. – Civil war of the Armagnacs and the Burgundians. Jean sans Peur puts himself at the head of the Cabochiens *Cabachiens. – Defeat of Agincourt against the English seven counts were wounded there it was called *the call to the day of the seven *sep Counts. – Isabeau sold France to Henry V King of England by the Treaty of Troyes.-

     1422 Charles VII The Victorious.

La Hire fights for Charles VII he frees Montargis. – Siege of Orléans, Herring Day – Joan of Arc liberates Orléans – The Bishop of Beauvais crowns Henry VI in Paris but Charles VII is recognized as king – End of the Hundred Years War. – The Praguerie

     1461 Louis XI

Public Welfare League – Interview between Louis XI and Charles the Bold – Siege of Beauvais Jeanne Hachette – War with Maximilian of Austria, the battle of Guinegate, the outcome of which was doubtful. – St François de Paule came to assist the king at his death.

  1. 1483Charles VIII The Affable

Regency of Anne de Beaujeu – La Trémouille wins a victory against the Duke of Orléans at St Aubin du Cormier (Ille et Vilaine).

The king marries Anne of Brittany.

Victory of Fornoue (Italy).

  1. 1498 Louis XII Father of the People.

Louis XII was grandson of Louis I of Orléans and Valentine Visconti. Louis XII marries Anne of Brittany. – Louis XII was at fault against Pope Julius II.- Death of Gaston de Foix in Ravenna.- Bayard fought throughout the reign of Louis XII..CS13-46-47

  1. 1515Francis 1father of letters

Rivalry of Francis 1e and Charles V. – Interview of the camp of the gold cloth *dor with the king of England Henry VIII. – Death of Bayard.- After the defeat of Pavia, François wrote these *his words to Louise de Savoie, his mother: "Madame, all is lost, fors honor! " - Peace of the Ladies signed in Cambrai between Louise de Savoie and Margaret of Austria - The Renaissance. -Luther.

  1. 1547Henry II

Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis with England *England and Spain; France kept the Three Bishoprics but this peace was unfortunate. – Catherine de Medici.

  1. 1559Francis II

Marriage of the King to Mary Stuart of Scotland. –

Beginning of the Wars of Religion.

  1. 1560Charles IX

Catherine de Medici took the reins *queens of the government

her maxim was “To divide is to reign. »

First war of religion – Death of the Duke of Guise. – Massacre of Saint Bartholomew * Bartélémy.

  1. 1574Henry III

Barricade Day. – Faction of the Sixteen. – Murder of the Guises.

   Third Branch: Bourbons.

     1589. Henry IV

Difficulties of the accession of Henri IV because he [sic] was huguenot *hugenot – Fall of the Sixteen. – Abjuration of Henri IV – Victory of Fontaine-Française won over Mayenne.- Edict of Nantes. – The king marries Marie de Medici. Ravaillac assassinates *assassinates the king.

  1. 1610Louis XIII The Just

Regency of Marie *Married de Medici, his weakness.- Marriage of the king with Anne of Austria.-

CS13-48-49

Albert de Luynes comes into favor with the king to the detriment of Concini, the king gives him the title of Marshal of France. – Death of Luynes. – Richelieu Prime Minister – Severe executions against the nobility – Last war of Religion taken from La Rochelle.- France takes part in the Thirty Years War – Exploit of Bernard Saxe-Weimar *Veimar – Conspiracy of Cinq-Mars against Richelieu that he wanted to supplant – Mazarin

     1643. Louis XIV The Great

Regency of Anne of Austria – Cabals of the Important – Minister Mazarin – Peace of Westphalia – Peace of the Pyrenees Louis de Haro for Spain and Mazarin for France on Conference Island. – Marriage of the king with Marie Thérèse. – Colbert and Louvois – Glorious campaigns of Turenne – Jansenism – Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. – Attempts to restore James II to the throne *thrones of the defeated Stuarts. – Glorious exploit of Catinat, of Luxembourg. - Victories

naval, Duguay-Trouin and Jean Bart. – The Duke of Anjou grandson of Louis XIV, King of Spain *Espage – Defeat of Oudenarde de Malplaquet – Victory of Villa-Viciosa by Philippe V and Vendôme.

  1. 1715 Louis XV The Beloved.

Regency of the Duke of Orleans – Bank of Law. – Albéroni wants to raise his master Philippe V to the throne of France. Treaty of the Quadruple Alliance against Spain – Dubois Prime Minister – The King marries Marie Leczinska – Minister of Cardinal de Fleury – War for the succession of Poland – War for the succession of Austria. Empress Marie-Thérèse; - Seven Years' War - Family Pact - Madame Louise of France was the daughter of Louis XV.

   1774 Louis XVI

Reforms of Turgot and Malherbes. – American War – Convocation of the States General. – France in Revolution. - Capture of the Bastille -

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1792 Convention – Death of Louis XVI –

1793 Republic – The Terror *The Terror. – Vendée War – Death of Marie Antoinette – Death of Madame Elisabeth – Simon kills Louis XVII – Death of Robespierre - Directory 1795 – Campaign in Egypt, Bonaparte wins a victory at the Pyramids *Pyramids – 1799 Consulate – 1804 Empire Napoleon – Napoleon has his divorce pronounced with Joséphine de Beauharnais –

   Catering

   Louis XVIII 1814

Napoleon is defeated by the arrival of the Prussians. – Napoleon dies on the island of St Helena –

   1824 Charles

Conquest *Conquest of Algeria *Algeria. – Revolution of July 1830

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